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Valentine Ignatov
Valentine Ignatov

Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry


Gain a deeper understanding of how inorganic chemistry relates to your own life through coverage of both historical developments and the fascinating contemporary applications of inorganic chemistry. Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry takes a less mathematical approach to the subject by using the periodic table to explore chemical properties and uncover relationships between elements in different groups.




Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry


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After completing his Ph.D. in transition metal chemistry at Imperial College, London, England, Geoff Rayner-Canham has spent his career mainly at the Grenfell Campus of Memorial University, Newfoundland, Canada, together with sabbatical leaves at such diverse places as the Colorado School of Mines and the University of California, Santa Cruz. Being unable to find an inorganic chemistry text which used the concepts to explain the properties and uses of the chemical elements and compounds, he, subsequently joined by Tina Overton, authored Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry. The text is now entering its sixth edition, and has been translated into Spanish, Korean, Japanese, German, Portuguese, and Khmer. Geoff has authored many publications relevant to the teaching of inorganic chemistry, including several on novel aspects of the Periodic Table. Recognition of his contributions to the teaching of chemistry have included the Chemistry Education Award of the Chemical Institute of Canada, and the National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada PromoScience Award. Researching the life and work of pioneering women chemists is another of his activities, this work resulting in several books co-authored with Marelene Rayner-Canham.


CHE 3300 - Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry Credits: 3 Prerequisite(s): CHE 1810Description: This course covers types of bonding in, periodic properties of, and reactivity of various fundamental inorganic substances. Acid-base, solubility and redox concepts are re-examined with attention to periodic trends, how the concepts overlap each other and together provide context for aqueous environments. The descriptive chemistry of selected members of the main group and the inner transition elements and the most common compounds of these elements are explored with attention to mineral sources and practical uses. Basic concepts of Coordination Chemistry (bonding, ligand types, nomenclature, isomers, ligand field theory) are covered.


Inorganic chemistry deals with synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers chemical compounds that are not carbon-based, which are the subjects of organic chemistry. The distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, as there is much overlap in the subdiscipline of organometallic chemistry. It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry, including catalysis, materials science, pigments, surfactants, coatings, medications, fuels, and agriculture.[1]


Important classes of inorganic compounds are the oxides, the carbonates, the sulfates, and the halides. Many inorganic compounds are characterized by high melting points. Many inorganic compounds have high melting point and ease of crystallization. Some salts (e.g., NaCl) are very soluble in water, others (e.g., FeS) are not.


The simplest inorganic reaction is double displacement when in mixing of two salts the ions are swapped without a change in oxidation state. In redox reactions one reactant, the oxidant, lowers its oxidation state and another reactant, the reductant, has its oxidation state increased. The net result is an exchange of electrons. Electron exchange can occur indirectly as well, e.g., in batteries, a key concept in electrochemistry.


When one reactant contains hydrogen atoms, a reaction can take place by exchanging protons in acid-base chemistry. In a more general definition, any chemical species capable of binding to electron pairs is called a Lewis acid; conversely any molecule that tends to donate an electron pair is referred to as a Lewis base.[3] As a refinement of acid-base interactions, the HSAB theory takes into account polarizability and size of ions.


The first important man-made inorganic compound was ammonium nitrate for soil fertilization through the Haber process.[7] Inorganic compounds are synthesized for use as catalysts such as vanadium(V) oxide and titanium(III) chloride, or as reagents in organic chemistry such as lithium aluminium hydride.


Subdivisions of inorganic chemistry are organometallic chemistry, cluster chemistry and bioinorganic chemistry. These fields are active areas of research in inorganic chemistry, aimed toward new catalysts, superconductors, and therapies.


Inorganic chemistry is a highly practical area of science. Traditionally, the scale of a nation's economy could be evaluated by their productivity of sulfuric acid. The manufacturing of fertilizers, which often begins with the Haber-Bosch process, is another practical application of industrial inorganic chemistry.[8][9]


Descriptive inorganic chemistry focuses on the classification of compounds based on their properties. Partly the classification focuses on the position in the periodic table of the heaviest element (the element with the highest atomic weight) in the compound, partly by grouping compounds by their structural similarities.


The stereochemistry of coordination complexes can be quite rich, as hinted at by Werner's separation of two enantiomers of [Co((OH)2Co(NH3)4)3]6+, an early demonstration that chirality is not inherent to organic compounds. A topical theme within this specialization is supramolecular coordination chemistry.[10]


Main group compounds have been known since the beginnings of chemistry, e.g., elemental sulfur and the distillable white phosphorus. Experiments on oxygen, O2, by Lavoisier and Priestley not only identified an important diatomic gas, but opened the way for describing compounds and reactions according to stoichiometric ratios. The discovery of a practical synthesis of ammonia using iron catalysts by Carl Bosch and Fritz Haber in the early 1900s deeply impacted mankind, demonstrating the significance of inorganic chemical synthesis.Typical main group compounds are SiO2, SnCl4, and N2O. Many main group compounds can also be classed as "organometallic", as they contain organic groups, e.g., B(CH3)3). Main group compounds also occur in nature, e.g., phosphate in DNA, and therefore may be classed as bioinorganic. Conversely, organic compounds lacking (many) hydrogen ligands can be classed as "inorganic", such as the fullerenes, buckytubes and binary carbon oxides.


Noble gases are elements which have filled valence electron shells in their neutral state, and are thus stable as lone atoms. Historically known as being inert, methods were discovered to react with them. The trend within the group is for the larger elements to be more reactive. Xenon and krypton are more easily ionized, and can combine with extremely electronegative elements to make fluorides and oxides and form solid ionic compounds. Argon, neon, and helium are much less reactive, though in cosmochemistry ArH+ has been observed spectroscopically in interstellar gas. Noble gases can also be trapped in solids while not being directly coordinated in clathrates or in endohedral fullerenes.


Transition metal compounds show a rich coordination chemistry, varying from tetrahedral for titanium (e.g., TiCl4) to square planar for some nickel complexes to octahedral for coordination complexes of cobalt. A range of transition metals can be found in biologically important compounds, such as iron in hemoglobin.


Organometallic compounds are mainly considered a special category because organic ligands are often sensitive to hydrolysis or oxidation, necessitating that organometallic chemistry employs more specialized preparative methods than was traditional in Werner-type complexes. Synthetic methodology, especially the ability to manipulate complexes in solvents of low coordinating power, enabled the exploration of very weakly coordinating ligands such as hydrocarbons, H2, and N2. Because the ligands are petrochemicals in some sense, the area of organometallic chemistry has greatly benefited from its relevance to industry.


Clusters can be found in all classes of chemical compounds. According to the commonly accepted definition, a cluster consists minimally of a triangular set of atoms that are directly bonded to each other. But metal-metal bonded dimetallic complexes are highly relevant to the area. Clusters occur in "pure" inorganic systems, organometallic chemistry, main group chemistry, and bioinorganic chemistry. The distinction between very large clusters and bulk solids is increasingly blurred. This interface is the chemical basis of nanoscience or nanotechnology and specifically arise from the study of quantum size effects in cadmium selenide clusters. Thus, large clusters can be described as an array of bound atoms intermediate in character between a molecule and a solid. 041b061a72


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